1,800 BCE – Abraham The Hebrew
Abraham and his family dwells in a land, which later will be called Israel. Abraham's grandson, Jacob, will be given the name "Israel". After 100 years, Jacob and his sons are forced to leave to Egypt, due to famine.
1,270 BCE – Anastasi papyrus and The Exodus
The Anastasi papyrus, dated to Ramses 2 (1,279-1,213 BCE), mentions the head of the Israeli "Asher Tribe".
However, according to the bible – the Israelites only leave Egypt at the same year. This exodus is the origin of 3 Jewish holidays: Passover, Sukot and Shavu'ot.
1,209 BCE – Merneptah Stele
The name "Israel" is mentioned for the first time in the archaeological records – a stele raised by pharaoh Merneptah.
1,000 BCE – Jerusalem made capital city
Years after Prophet Samuel anoints Saul as Israel's first king (1,026 BCE), King David moves his capital city from Hebron to Jerusalem, and wishes to build a temple.
960 BCE – The First Temple
King Solomon (King David's son) builds the first temple in Jerusalem, on temple mount. In addition, King Solomon also builds and fortifies 3 more cities in Israel – Megiddo, Hatzor and Gezzer – which still have those fortifications today, in archaeological digs.
733 BCE – The Assyrians
The kingdom of Israel is conquered by the Assyrians, which enslave the other parts of the land.
722/1 BCE – The Assyrian Exile
A new Assyrian king exiles many of the Israelites to the eastern parts of Assyria (modern Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, etc).
587/6 BCE – Destruction of First Temple and The Babylonian Exile
King of Babylon conquers Judea, and destroys Jerusalem and the first temple. Most Israelites are exiled to Babylon (modern Iraq). The rest flee to Egypt in 586, and the kingdom of Judea ceases to exist.
538 BCE – Cyrus Cylinder
Cyrus (Koresh) the 2nd, king of Persia, defeats Babylon and allows the Jewish exiles to go back to Israel.
515 BCE – The Second Temple
The Babylon exiles return to Israel, and builds a modest Second Temple by 515 BCE.
167 BCE – Hasmonean Revolt
150 years after Alexander The Great came to Israel (332 BCE), a new Greek ruler of Israel forces the people to "Hellenize". They revolt and take over Jerusalem in 164 BCE. Their victory is celebrated as Hanukkah.
104 – 37 BCE – Enters Rome
Rome takes over the lands north to Israel (104 BCE), and by 63 BCE it conquers Jerusalem and Judea. King Herod enlarges the temple and rules Israel until 37 BCE.
5 BCE – Jesus of Nazareth
Born in 5 BCE, Jesus becomes a preacher in 27 AD, and arrives in Jerusalem in 30 AD. He is crucified, but his students spread his teachings.
67 – 71 AD – Great Revolt & Destruction of Second Temple
The Israelites take over Jerusalem, most of Judea and parts of Samaria and the Galilee. Rome reacts in 67 AD, and the revolt is over by 70 AD.
By mid 70 AD Jerusalem is sieged, and by summer-time the Second Temple is burned to the ground.
74 AD – Masada Falls
Last of the Jewish rebels in Masada commit collective suicide, according to historian Josephus.
132 – 135 AD – Second Revolt
Bar Kochva revolt against Rome, ended by 133 AD. Many Jews are enslaved and many others are exiled to other countries. Emperor Adrian changes the country's name to "Syria Palestina", and Jerusalem's name to "Ilya Capitolina".
324 AD – Christian Rome
Constantine 1st moves his capital city from Rome to Constantinople, and Christianity becomes Rome's official religion. The new Christians persecute the Jews in the land of Israel.
629 AD – Arab-Muslim Conquests
In 629 AD, Prophet Muhammad's armies begin taking over the southern parts of Israel / the Byzantine empire. Following the Battle of Yarmouk (636 AD), the Muslim Arabs defeats the Byzantines and take over Israel.
691 AD – Dome of The Rock
Khalif Abd El-Malak El-Marwan establishes Jerusalem as the center of Islam. Upon the ruins of temple mount, he builds the Dome of The Rock (691 AD) and El Aqsa mosque (705 AD).
1096 AD – The First Crusade
Pope Urbanus 2nd wants to rid the holy land of the Muslims. By 1,099 AD Jerusalem is taken, and by 1,100 – Haifa. Eventually the Muslim Arabs regain control.
1516 – 1917 AD – The Ottoman & British Empires
The Ottoman empire spreads to the south, to Israel. Its ruling lasts 400 years and ends in 1917, when Britain conquers Israel.
1492 – 1498 – The Spanish & Portuguese Expulsion
Thousands of Jews – descendants of the Assyrian, Babylonian and Roman exiles (8th to 6th centuries BCE) – were expelled from Spain and Portugal, since they wouldn't convert to Christianity. Some of them come to Israel.
1859 – Mishkenot Sha'ananim
The first Jewish neighborhood ever to exist outside Jerusalem's walls, in 3,000 years.
1881 – 1930s Aliyah
Many more descendants of the Assyrian, Babylonian and Roman exiles – move back to Israel in five major exoduses.
November 2nd, 1917 – Balfour Declaration
The first international recognition of Zionism and its goals in the land of Israel.
1920-1921, 1929, 1936-1939 – Arab Riots
Violent acts of Arabs against Jews.
1939 – 1948 – Holocaust Aliyah
Some 130,000 European Jews come to Israel due to Nazi crimes, which eventually murdered 6 million of them. All these waves of Aliyah, since 1881 to 1948, expanded the Jewish population from 28,000 to 650,000.
November 30th, 1947 – War of Independence
The Arabs – both in-land and in other Arab countries – don't want the Jews in Palestine, and start a full-fledged war. By the end of it, Israel has regained control.
May 14th, 1948 – Israel's Independence Day
Upon the end of British mandate, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion declares the State of Israel.
July 1967 – Six-Day War
Four Arab countries attack Israel all at once, in all fronts (with the aid of all other Arab countries). Israel won and took over The Sinai, Gaza, Golan Heights, Judea & Samaria and East Jerusalem.
The Sinai was returned to Egypt in 1982, as part of a peace treaty.
Gaza strip, Jenin and Hebron were returned to the Palestinians during the 1990s and 2000s.
October 1973 – Yom Kippur War
Both Syria and Egypt attack Israel, in one of the worst wars it had ever known.
1982 – 1985 – First Lebanon War
Terrorists operating under Syrian and Lebanese courtesy, attack Israel from Lebanon territory. Israel responds by invading South Lebanon.
In 1985 Israel retreats to a narrow security zone, near its border with Lebanon.
In 2000 Israel leaves Lebanon altogether.
July-August 2006 – Second Lebanon War
Terrorists kidnap Israeli Soldiers, making Israel retaliate.
One of the soldiers, Gilad Shalit, is still being held captive in Gaza.